• Toyota Supra

Toyota Supra – a sports car produced by the Japanese company Toyota in the years 1978-2002. To drive the gasoline engines used only R6, also turbocharged. Power was transferred to the rear axle. The first two generations were based on the model of the Celica, hence were called Toyota Celica Supra. From the third generation Supra became its own model. The production of the fourth – the last generation model was completed in Japan in 2002.

The first generation model was produced from April 1978 to June 1981. Was based largely on the Toyota liftback version Celiki, back strap seized without major changes, the front fascia has been lengthened to accommodate the in-line six-cylinder engine (in Celice mounted four-cylinder engines). The car was Toyota’s response to the models of the Nissan Fairlady Z.

In Japan, the new model is presented under the name Celica XX in April 1978. For the North American market car made its debut in January, 1979. Initially, it was available from R6 engine 2.6 l SOHC with a capacity of 112hp (U.S. market) and R6 SOHC 2.0 L of the same power in the Japanese market. Both engines were equipped with fuel injection. The engine could be locked with a 5-speed manual (W50) or 4-speed automatic transmission (A40D) transmission transmission, both with overdrive. The standard vehicle was equipped with disc brakes on both axles.

From vintage 1980 began to mount turbocharged R6 with a capacity of two liters, it was the first car Toyota turbocharged power unit. In addition, the body live to see a cosmetic change. In the following year the engine 2.8-liter power generating 118 hp. In addition, the improved version of the 4-speed automatic transmission (A43D designation). In a test conducted by the editors of Motor Trend magazine, R6 version 2.8 was measured acceleration time 0-100km/h equal to 10.24 s and the travel time equal to ¼ mile 19.5 seconds at terminal velocity equal to 125km/h.

In July 1981, Toyota Celica modernized family models and Celica Supra. In the United States market Mk II was available in two versions: P-Type (sports version), and L-Type (deluxe version). Both variants were twin technically, the only differences are the available sizes of tires and wheels, body accessories and gear diffs. The suspension system for the third generation Supra was produced in cooperation with the British Lotus. Twin model introduced to the Japanese market was Soarer.

Year 1982 (year 1981) prepared for the U.S. market was driven by the engine of 2.8 l DOHC R6, which at 8.8:1 compression generate power 147hp (108 kW) and torque of 210 Nm. This allowed the acceleration of 0-100km/h 9.8 secondsand ranging travel time equal to ¼ mile 17.2 seconds at terminal velocity of 130km/h. To serve transmission 5-speed manual or 4-speed automatic transmission, both of overdrive.

The list of standard equipment of the second generation Supra were m.in: electric sliding windows, central locking, electrically adjustable exterior mirrors, air conditioning or cruise control. The car was also used in the antenna pressed-glass front.

For the 1983 vintage was prepared strengthened to 152hp (112 kW) and 21 Nm R6 engine version 2.8 5M-GE. Also changed type 4-speed automatic transmission (A43DE). Born in 1984 was again reinforced engine with manual transmission it reached 162hp (119 kW) and 221 Nm. This increase was obtained, among others, by raising the compression ratio to 9,2:1. Powertrains combined with automatic gearboxes were characterized by the same level of maximum power as well as in the poprzednich.Zmieniono ratio gearboxes. In addition, the modified shape of the front direction and the look of the rear flange. Refreshed was also the appearance of the cabin – the meter has been calibrated to 130mph (210km/h).

Year 1985 was slightly enhanced engine – 163hp (120 kW) and 229 Nm. Another change to offset the power of the engines used with automatic gearboxes terms used engines with manual transmissions. With a more powerful engine acceleration time 0-100km/h was 8.6 seconds, and the passage ¼ mile 16.1 seconds at end speed 137km/h.

The second generation Supra was also offered in the greater part of Europe (including the UK, Switzerland and Sweden), Australia and New Zealand.

The third generation Supra went into production in February 1986, in the Japanese market dropped from the name Celica XX. It was a completely new design unrelated to the Celica. Both models have become different structures, front wheel drive Celica received in the allowed Suprze rear wheel drive. Trailer kept similar to the second generation of the model. In terms of design it was a structure akin to the Toyota Soarer.

To drive the motor used R6 3,0 l 4 valves per cylinder (DOHC) version aspirated 7M-GE and 1987 turbocharged 7M-GTE. Power first was 203 HP (149 kW) at 6000 rev./Min, it was locked with a 5-speed manual transmission codenamed W58. The unit achieves a turbocharged 233hp (173 kW) at 5600 rev./Min. and torque of 334 Nm, combined it with a 5-speed manual gearbox with code R154. In 1989, its power was raised to 234km, and the torque to 344 Nm. In the case of both units can be optionally ordered 4-speed automatic A340.

From January 1987 Supra Turbo was available. In addition to the use of turbocharging, different from the naturally aspirated version mounted in a standard oil cooler, integrated rear spoiler, a mechanism limited-slip differential (LSD) and headlamp washers. The list of accessories was, inter alia, ABS system. Since 1989 Turbo models, received a three-piece rear spoiler with integrated third light "stop" based on LEDs, changed the look of the rear lights and front belt body. Since 1990, the standard equipment added to the system airbags.

For the Japanese market Supra was available in three engine variants: 2.5 liter R6 1JZ-GTE twin-turbo with 280hp (206 kW), 2.0 liter R6 1G-GTE twin-turbo 213hp (157 kW) and aspirated R6 engine 2.0-liter 1G-GEU.

From August to September 1988 in the Japanese market was available a series of 500 copies homologation version of Turbo-A. It uses the 3.0 L engine R6 GTEU 7M-generating power 271hp (199 kW) and torque 358 Nm.

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The production of the fourth generation was launched in December 1992, then released to the market 20 copies preproduction. Serial production started in May 1993 The fourth generation received a completely stylization-door hatchback coupe with rounded shapes and two new powertrains.

For the Japanese market were two versions of the engine, R6 3.0 L 2JZ-GE power of 223hp (164 kW) at 5800 rev./Min. and a torque of 280 Nm at 4800 rpm./min. and its turbocharged 2JZ-GTE equivalent power of 280hp (206 kW) and a torque of 431 Nm. Turbo version prepared for export was equipped with a more powerful engine that generates 324hp (239 kW) at 5600 rev./Min. and a torque of 427 Nm at 4000 rev./Min. In a test conducted by Car and Driver magazine reached a 0-96 acceleration timekm/h equal to 4.6 secondsand the duration of the ¼ mile 13.1 seconds at terminal velocity of 175km/h. Top speed is electronically limited to 250km/h (180km/h on the Japanese market).

Turbo version for the European market was characterized by a large brakes with 4 piston clamps the front, 2 piston rear, differential cooler, an active spoiler, outside air intake on the bonnet. Japanese version generated 280hp, worked on the MAP sensor, turbine shafts have ceramic exhaust and intake shaft to a lower pitch, to the 1997 version of the turbo had a small disc with two-piston calipers in the front and one piston in the rear. The U.S. version outside plastic lights and lack of intake on the hood specification complies with the European version.

Twin-turbo system worked in a sequential mode – the first turbocharger crowded air at low engine speeds, the second activated at higher speeds. The solution is allowed to reduce turbo lag phenomenon. For the fourth-generation Supra was prepared as a 6-speed manual gearbox German company GETRAG codenamed V160 and V161 after 1998 – it was a 6-speed gearbox Double roll. In addition it was available a 5-speed manual gearbox W58 and 4-speed automatic A340. The rear axle uses a Torsen differential type.

Export fourth-generation Supra, Europe ceased in 1996 in the United States in 1998. In August 2002, completed the production of the car, it was caused by a decrease in interest on the market.