• Toyota RAV4

The RAV4 (Recreational Active Vehicle 4-Wheel Drive) is a compact SUV from the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota.

The model was presented in the summer of 1994 in Germany and Japan, in the U.S. until the end of 1996. RAV4 used as the Lada Niva off-road vehicles not the usual ladder frame, but a self-supporting body.

The idea to combine the advantages of cars and SUV crossover concept in this together, was an unexpected success for Toyota. The relatively lightweight, high-mounted, self-supporting body in conjunction with permanent four-wheel drive and a 95 kW (129hp) 2-liter 16-valve petrol engine knew both the automotive press as well as to convince the customers. The RAV4 moulted within a short time a coveted lifestyle vehicle. Unlike to heavier, more expensive SUV had the RAV4 is not selectable four-wheel drive, no gear reduction or individually lockable differentials. Only the center differential could be locked (center differential lock only in conjunction with manual gearbox). Nevertheless, he offered a quite useful off-road capability due to the permanent all-wheel drive and high ground clearance and short body overhangs. It is produced in Nagoya, Japan.

First, the RAV4 was available from August 1994 only as a three-door, in February 1995, in addition to the five-door followed with a significantly improved space. Due to the longer wheelbase, the ride comfort and driving behavior were better balanced.

Beginning of 1998 was a first facelift with changes to headlights, taillights and grille and a revised interior. In addition, the model range was extended with a work based on the three-door convertible.

Unchanged until the end of production remained the only available engine with two liters and 95 kW (129hp). This could be combined with a 5-speed manual transmission or an optional 4-speed automatic.

Towards the middle of 2000, the production of the first generation RAV4 ran out.

Toyota RAV4 Fünftürer (1998-2000)

Toyota RAV4 Cabrio (1998-2000)

From the end of 1997, Toyota offered on a fully electric version of the RAV4 electric car for the California market after the former CARB laws forced the automaker to the gradual introduction of so-called zero-Emisssions vehicles (ZEV).

The vehicles were merely leased out to the users. A purchase was (as with other EV manufacturers) then not possible.

Since the end of 2003 RAV4 EVs are no longer manufactured, after the strict emission laws were loosened again in California under pressure from the auto industry. The car manufacturer even tried to fully scrap the existing electric vehicles.

A total of 1575 RAV4 EV were built. Today, still about 800 RAV4 EV on the road. These vehicles were, inter alia, saved through campaigns such as Do not Crush from the scrapyard by Toyota.

The oil giant Texaco (now Chevron) bought the patents for the manufacture of NiMH batteries and limited worldwide production of large-format NiMH cells. Toyota/Panasonic and other battery manufacturers have been sued by Chevron. The historical context in which were published in 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car shown.

The RAV4 EV reached a top speed of 126km/h (78mph) and had a range of 160 up to 190km (100-120 miles). Except for the electric powertrain of the RAV4 EV was identical to the model equipped with an internal combustion engine. For the realization of the brake booster an electrically driven vacuum pump was used, worked for power steering and air conditioning electric motors. Was heated electrically.

As energy storage 95Ah NiMh cells were used with a total capacity of 27 kWh. Several RAV4 EVs already reached mileages over 150,000 miles (240,000km) with the original traction battery. Charged the RAV4 EV developed by GM Magne Charge charging system via an inductive touch-safe "charging paddle" was. On the vehicle side of this paddle was inserted into a contactless charging slot. This charging system was used in the GM EV1 and other Vehicles from this period are used.

In August 2000, the second-generation RAV4 appeared with a greatly expanded body. It retains the two-body concept with a short three-door and longer five-door model.

The 2-liter 4-cylinder petrol engine strengthened to 110 kW (150hp) and was now made of aluminum.

For the first time available in the second generation RAV4 was a 2-liter 4-cylinder common-rail turbo diesel engine with 85 kW (116hp) and intercooler (D4-D). Recognizable were diesel models at the arranged above the intercooler air scoop on the hood.

The first time a RAV4 model appeared without all-wheel drive. The 1.8-liter 4-cylinder gasoline engine developed 92 kW (125hp) and was available in both three-door and five-door. The force was transmitted to the front wheels.

In July 2003, in turn, were revised with modified interior, as well as other front apron.

A licensed construction of this type is sold in China as the Jonway UFO.

Toyota RAV4 (2003–2006)

Rear view

The following engines were available:

In March 2006, the third generation of the RAV4 in Germany appeared. The body grew over the second-generation RAV4 by up to 12 inches in outer length. For the first time the RAV4 could be had only as a five-door hatchback.

A version with pure front-wheel drive was not offered due to lack of public interest. The vehicle is equipped with a four-wheel system (Active Torque Control), which uses an electromagnetically controlled clutch. The torque distribution between the front and rear axle is continuously optimized during driving.

In addition, dynamic handling control systems such as VSC + (Vehicle Stability Control) of the latest generation have been installed, which is called Toyota in totality IADS (Intelligent Active Drive System). The systems are for example able to over-or understeer tendencies of the vehicle to recognize and support the driver actively correct steering responses, or to impede the wrong steering reactions. The system monitors and controls all active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist, TRC (Traction Control, Traction Control System), VSC + and the electronic power steering.

The spare wheel is in the highest trim level in conjunction with the 177hp diesel no longer exists, as this tire has with emergency running (Run Flat Tire), at least 80 kilometers on the way to a workshop at a reduced speed (80km/h) allow.

The following engines are offered:

In February 2009, the RAV4 was given a facelift. This front section, rear and rocker were visually changed. The interior was also slightly modified. Against all expectations, offering Toyota RAV4 now but in the revised version with a pure front-wheel drive (4×2) at. The front-wheel drive is available only as a gasoline engine and can only be ordered with 6-speed manual transmission.

The all-wheel drive version of the gasoline engine is available with the new continuously variable automatic transmission (Multidrive-S).

Has recently become an option for the 150hp diesel engine, a 6-speed automatic transmission to have.

Since September 2009, the diesel version with 150hp also available as front-wheel drive (4×2) with 6-speed manual transmission is offered.

The engine options:

Toyota RAV4 (2009–2010)

Rear view

In April 2010, the RAV4 was revised again. The entire front including bonnet, headlights, grille and fog lights and front bumper have been modified.

Toyota RAV4 (2010–2013)

Rear view

Early 2013 ran from the production of the third generation.

At the Los Angeles Auto Show 2012, the fourth generation of the RAV4 celebrated its world premiere. Europe-wide launch was on 13 April 2013. The new model shows up with a length of 4570 mm compared to the previous grown by 205 mm. Moreover, the new generation by 30 mm wider and 25 mm lower. First come the RAV4 LED daytime running lamps are used.

There are three engines available, including two diesel engines and one petrol. This was – as well as the more powerful diesel – taken over from its predecessor, while the 2-liter diesel engine with 91 kW (124hp), is inserted into the program. The gasoline engine, also with two liter cubic capacity with 111 kW (151hp) is somewhat less than its predecessor, the 2.2-liter diesel is unchanged 110 kW (150hp).

For the markets of Russia and Belarus will produce the Toyota RAV4 2016 in Saint Petersburg.

* The 2.5-liter engine is not available in the EU, but for example, in Russia and in the USA.

Toyota RAV4 Adventure (seit 2013)

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Konzeptautos: Toyota FCHV • Toyota i-Road