• Toyota Land Cruiser Prado

The Toyota Land Cruiser is a built since 1951 SUV. This Japanese automaker Quick achieved primarily in Africa, Latin America and the Arab world, a reputation for reliability and durability.

The model was produced in the course of time, in numerous variations. The Toyota Land Cruiser is next to the Toyota Hilux the first motor vehicle, which among other things, each with strong modifications has reached the chassis and the wheels and the engine the North Pole.

In Germany, two models are currently available, the known J15, in Germany just Landcruiser (in Austria Land Cruiser 300, the rest of the world Land Cruiser Prado or Prado) called (since 2009) and the J20, in Germany as Land Cruiser V8 (since 2008). Abroad, this version is sometimes also called the Land Cruiser 200. In addition, the J7 will still be produced after a facelift in 2007, mainly to Africa and Australia.

The Model Code consists of the letter J (for SUVs) and a number for the vehicle generation. In addition come before the J one to three letters for the engine code and after the model number a number for the variant. For example, the KD is in the name KDJ120 for 1KD-FTV engine (4-cylinder, 3-liter displacement), J12 for the model and 0 for the long model. KDJ125 would thus be the same model with the same engine, only in a short version.

From the beginning, there were always two Land Cruiser models, which were built in parallel.

The smaller models have been or are sold under the name of J2, J4, J7, J9, J12 and J15 currently. The larger models are labeled J3, J5, J6, J8, J10 and J20 currently.

1941 the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines, where they obtained a Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to build a similar vehicle but should not resemble the American Jeep. The prototype was AK (四 式 小型 货物 车 Compact vans the 2604th imperial dynasty) called by the Japanese army Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha.

Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for Japanese military actions. Then, Toyota produced 1942 1/2-Tonne-Prototypen AK10. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering of the Bantam GP. There are no known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some sketches. He had an upright front grille, flat front fender, the obliquely downwardly and rearwardly like the received FJ40, headlights, which were mounted on the wings on both sides of the radiator and a folding windshield.

The AK10 has a 2259cc 4-cylinder Engine Type C from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and a reduction gear. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and the postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Most of the AK10 were not actively used, unlike the U.S. Jeep and there are almost no pictures of him on the battlefield.

1950 Toyota began at a tender arms of the military Japanese "National Police Reserve" (forerunner of the Japanese armed forces) with the work on the prototype of an SUV that was produced in 1951 as "BJ". Since Toyota did not win the tender, the BJ was only used by Japanese authorities, forestry departments and the U.S. military stationed in Japan. The Ur-BJ was driven by a strong Diesel engine with 3.4 liter displacement and 63 kW. Equipped with leaf springs, live axle and large 16-inch wheels, the BJ was less comfortable than robust on the market. 298 units were produced to order, just four copies were exported.

1954 BJ was renamed Land Cruiser and made his international debut. He should look for the export of civilian than the BJ. The prominent headlamps the J2 guys were already integrated into the body and no longer mounted free-standing on the fenders. He also had a more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs, as the BJ, which had been adapted from the AK10. In addition, Toyota replaced the 1956 diesel engine Type B with 85hp by a stronger 3.9-liter six-cylinder petrol engine with 109 PS of type F. The interior was comfortable, because the engine was shifted by 120 mm forward. The J2 Series still had no reduction, but was synchronized in the third and fourth gear.

1957, the production tripled to 2887 units, of which there were only 450 copies in Japan. The Land Cruiser FJ25 was released officially on the U.S. market.

In addition, in 1957/58 new body styles, as the first country appeared Cruiser station with a longer wheelbase of 2650 mm as the FJ25 and the four-door station wagon under the name FJ35V. Around half of the 1000 Land Cruiser to the third generation (J3) were exported.

1960 J4 is introduced as the successor to the J2 and produced until 1984. With this model, the Land Cruiser is known from 1977 also in Germany.

It is available with several wheelbases and body versions, the short J40, the rare middle J43/J46, the long J45/J47 as bush taxi or pickup, the J45 as Pickup Short Bed with the rare J45 station (5-door).

In Brazil, the vehicle was built as a Toyota Bandeirante under license until 2001 under the name OJ55 almost unchanged. Was installed a diesel engine from Mercedes. In addition, the Bandeirante was also produced as a Double Cab.

From 1967, the Land Cruiser J5 was built. There were – except for a few Japanese cars (BJ55) – installed known from J4-F Series (to 1974) and 2F (1974-1980) engines. The exact model is FJ55. The J5 was built especially for North America. It corresponds largely to the J4 technically, however, the body design has been changed. For the German market, Toyota had to change sport seats, the front three seat bench against ASS to the prevailing Safety regulations is enough to do. Therefore, there was the FJ55 in Germany only as a 5-seater. It was produced from 1967 to 1980.

The introduced in 1981 and replaced the J5 J6. The vehicle was offered until 1990 with both petrol and diesel engine, the petrol engine – usually equipped with automatic transmission – was intended primarily for the United States.

1984, the J7 was introduced as a replacement of J4 as a soft-top and hardtop (soft top, removable solid roof), as a pick, as a closed three-and five-door SUV and as models with laterally inwardly mounted rear seats. The J7 had a four-wheel coil spring axle suspension for better ride quality. The lighter version of the Land Cruiser was awarded the Toyota 22R 2.4L gasoline engine, as well as the 2 liter and 2 liter turbo diesel and 2.4 liter Diesel engines from the Toyota Hilux. In addition, a 4.0-liter petrol engine was available, which was changed over the years on electronic fuel injection. An automatic transmission (A440F) was also introduced, whereby the J7 so that was the first Japanese-wheel drive vehicle with an automatic transmission. The J7 was sold in some markets as the Toyota Land Cruiser or Bundera II and later as a 70 Prado/Prado 70. The 70 Prado was very popular and was later further developed for Prado 90.

In 1987, a 3.9 liter turbo diesel with 176 kW (240hp) at 4200 rev/min. and 470 Nm of maximum torque at 3000 rev/min incorporated into the model program.

In 1990, a new diesel engine generation with the five-cylinder naturally aspirated engine 1PZ and the six-cylinder naturally aspirated engine 1HZ to offer.

In 1993, Toyota also a 24-valve, 4.5-liter six-cylinder petrol engine 1FZ in the series.

The J7 series has been extensively revised with coil springs instead of leaf springs on the front axle, lengthened rear leaf springs for increased ride comfort and suspension travel in 1999. The wheels were now secured with five instead of six bolts and several smaller modifications to the drivetrain were carried out to increase the durability.

2002 model HDJ79, first in Australia, with the 1HD FTE 4.2-liter six-cylinder 24-valve turbo diesel engine with direct injection was introduced.

As of 2007, Toyota built with the 4.5 liter 1VD-FTV a first V8 turbo-diesel engine in the J7 series for some countries. Furthermore, an additional 4-door model with medium wheelbase (76) was introduced and the front for all models was now significantly reworked.

2008 ended the production of the J7 series in Venezuela, while production in South Africa, continued to run for the remaining markets.

2012 double cab pickup in South Africa was introduced with the 4.2-liter diesel engine or 4.0-liter petrol engine, which is also exported to Australia, but there with the 4.5 liter V8 diesel engine. In addition to Africa and Oceania J7/Prado 90 generation still officially offered Middle Eastern countries and smaller Asian emerging economies from South African producers in South America.

The Land Cruiser J7 is often seen in news broadcasts related to UN missions and military conflicts and is admitted in Germany also for the purposes of the emergency services, especially for the mountain rescue service.

The J8 is the successor of J6, built by 1990 until 1997. Based on this, it was the first time the luxury version of the Lexus LX.

Launched in 1996 J9 partly replaced the J7. In some countries this the new model designation Toyota Land Cruiser Prado is used. 2002 this model was discontinued.

The J10 was built from 1998 to 2007 as a successor to the J8. In Germany it was called Land Cruiser 100 as front axle is available with either a rigid axle (J105) or independent suspension (J100). Here, too, there is again a Lexus LX. And it comes standard with air conditioning.

The J12 replaced 2002 J9. It was built – often still referred to as the Toyota Land Cruiser Prado – until 2009.

A heavily converted model of this series is one of the first cars (next two converted Toyota Hilux) who have ever reached the magnetic North Pole (for details see Top Gear: Polar Special).

The J20 is built as a successor to the J10 since 2008. In Germany it bears the sales name Land Cruiser V8, on other markets Land Cruiser or Land Cruiser 200, the third generation of the Lexus LX is based on him.

The Land Cruiser V8 has on the front a double-wishbone suspension and rear, a solid axle. The all-wheel drive is via a six-speed automatic transmission.

As a long-stroke engine comes in Germany V8 diesel engine with 4.5 liter displacement and 210 kW (286hp) at 3600 rpm for use. The maximum torque of 650 Nm at 1600 to 2800 rpm. The combined fuel consumption is 10.2 l/100km (270 g CO2-Emission/km). The top speed is 210km/h and acceleration from 0 to 100km/h takes place in 8.2 seconds.

In other markets besides gasoline engines with 4.7 and 5.7 liter displacement will be offered.

The Land Cruiser V8 has front and rear internally ventilated disc brakes. The payload is possible with a gross vehicle weight of 3.3 tons depending on vehicle equipment 505-610 kilograms. Unchecked trailers may weigh up to 750 kilograms. The trailer weight braked to twelve percent incline is 3.5 tons. The diesel tank holds 93 liters.

Water crossings are possible up to 70 centimeters. The climbing ability is 100 percent (45 degrees), the tilt angle of 44 degrees and the minimum ground clearance of 225 millimeters. For a 180-degree turn of the Land Cruiser V8 requires 11.9 meters.

In the fall of 2012, the Land Cruiser V8 has been slightly revised. In addition to a retouched look which brought rear lights with LED daytime running lights and technology, among other things, a new V8 petrol engine was introduced, the only in certain markets, however, is to have. In Europe, a V8 diesel only will continue to be offered, which now makes 272hp.

The J15 is built as a successor to the J12 since 2009. In Germany it bears the sales name Land Cruiser, in Austria the name Land Cruiser 300 is continued from the previous. In other markets, it is used as the Prado or Land Cruiser Prado. The SUV will be offered as a three-door and five-door body styles.

The Land Cruiser has at the front a double-wishbone suspension and rear, a solid axle. The all-wheel drive is via a five-speed automatic or a six-speed manual transmission.

As a long-stroke engine four-cylinder diesel engine comes with three liters of displacement and 140 kW (190hp) at 3400 rpm for use. The maximum torque of 420 Nm at 1600 to 2800 rpm. The combined fuel consumption is the three-door model with the use of the gearbox 8 l/100km (210 g /km of CO2 emissions) and with the use of the automatic transmission 8.4 l/100km (220 g /km). The five-door model consumes 0.1 l/100km more. The maximum speed is 175km/h and acceleration from 0 to 100km/h is done in 11.7 seconds with the manual transmission (automatic transmission 12.4 seconds).

The Land Cruiser has front and rear internally ventilated disc brakes. The payload is possible with a gross vehicle weight of 2.6 tons/2.99 tonnes (three-door/five-door) depending on vehicle equipment 385-835 kilograms. Unchecked trailers may weigh up to 750 kilograms. The trailer weight braked to twelve percent slope is three tons. The diesel tank holds 87 liters.

In the summer of 2013, Toyota announced a facelift. This affects the outer appearance, the interior and some technical features. Among other things, the suspension has been revised, further developed the traction control and changed the driving modes.

In the spring of 2014, the Land Cruiser is revised once more. Henceforth, the model has new headlights with LED daytime running lights and a redesigned bumper. Wherein the vehicle is increased in length by two inches.

The Toyota Land Cruiser is, especially in asymmetric conflicts, often used as a "Technical".

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Konzeptautos: Toyota FCHV • Toyota i-Road