• Toyota Hilux Surf

The Toyota 4Runner is an SUV from Toyota, which is sold in North America since 1984 and has been produced since 2009 at the Toyota plant in San Antonio, Texas, together with the Toyota Tacoma.

By 2009, it was produced in Japan in the Hino plant in Hamura and sold in Japan and other Asian countries as the Toyota Hilux Surf. At times was the 4-Runner/Hilux Surf offered on other continents such as Europe and the Toyota plant in Tahara (Aichi) or manufactured in Brazil.

The first 4Runner was a development of the based on the Pickup Toyota Hilux models TrailBlazer/Trekker/Wolverine. Then this new generation was a pickup truck with a fiberglass cover over the bed. Meanwhile, however, the model went through a lot of development, and the current generation is a big SUV. His crossover counterpart is the Highlander.

The Hilux from which the 4Runner was originally derived, was revised in the summer of 1983. Many other automakers led the mid-1980s, mid-size SUV (for example, the Ford Bronco II, Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, the Nissan Pathfinder), and so increased the pressure on Toyota to develop an appropriate model. Instead of starting a completely new development, Toyota made use of his pickup model and provided it with a one-piece body with GRP-cap (just like the big Ford Bronco or Chevrolet K5 Blazer), and with removable rear seats.

Thus, the first generation of the 4Runner was mechanically almost identical to the pickup. All of these cars had two doors and were identical to the pickup from the dashboard forward. Almost all changes affected only the rear part of the body. Because the springs were not reinforced at the rear to carry the extra weight of the rear seat and the GRP roof, the car of this generation often suffer from worn-out Hinterachsaufhängungen.

The first 4Runner was in the spring of 1984 than in 1984 – he introduced ½ model. This year, all models were equipped with black or white fiberglass roof. There was a SR5 equipment package for the interior with additional displays, better materials and standard rear seats. All models of this year had the 2.4-liter petrol engine R4 Toyota 22R, and there was a four wheel drive system with front solid axle, but what in 1986 – much to the regret of many Off-road enthusiasts – has been changed.

In 1985, the 2.4-liter R4 engine with electronic fuel injection, type Toyota 22R-E, introduced (carburettor engine remained available until 1988). Additionally, there was from 1985 rear seats standard on all 4Runner models, not only in the SR5.

1986, all available on the U.S. market, Toyota pickups were (and the 4Runner) underwent major design changes: Instead of the rigid front axle they got independent front suspension. The front track has been increased by 76 mm. These changes made the car more comfortable on the road and improved their driving stability and handling. But obviously worsened the independent suspension the terrain qualities. In Japan also got the Hilux Surf (which was identical to the 4Runner) the new suspension and was sold as Hi-Trac. The pickups in Japan but retained their rigid axle. The grille of the 4Runner was changed in 1986 by a three-part in a two-tier instance. The GRP roofs were adapted to the exterior color of the car; there were blue, red and in some cases, gold-colored roofs, while the 4Runner in other colors still had black or white roofs.

From 1984 to 1986 many 4Runner were introduced without rear seats in the United States. With only two seats, the car could be approved as a commercial vehicle rather than leisure car, which was significantly less import duty to pay. Most of these vehicles have been retrofitted by the U.S. dealers with rear seats and seat belts.

Also in 1986 the engine provided with a turbo 22R-TE was introduced, and this was, however, significantly less ordered than the 22R-E. It appears that all turbocharged 4Runner in the U.S. were equipped with an automatic gearbox, although there was also a five-speed manual gearbox for the turbo version of the pickups. Most turbo 4Runner SR5 had the equipment package and all were equipped with a stronger rear differential. Easy Turbo equipped models had an indicator light for the turbo, the better models have a digital display of the boost pressure. There was also aspirated and turbocharged diesel engines for these vehicles, but they were not consulted in the United States.

In 1988, the 22R-E engine on request, a 3.0-liter V6 engine, type Toyota 3VZ-E, to do so. This engine was significantly larger and stronger than the four-cylinder engines. Car with the big V6 engine had the same reinforced rear axle as the turbocharged four-cylinder, a whole new gearbox and a new center differential. This center differential had chain drive and ran a lot quieter than the old gear-driven.

An engine that has been used rarely in both the U.S. and Japan, was the four-cylinder type Toyota 3Y instead of the more usual 22R. In New Zealand, this engine was mainly used and was later the 2.2-liter R4, type Toyota 4Y, detached. This arose from a parts concept of Toyota New Zealand, because at that time no other Toyota there had the 22R engine.

1989, there were a few small cosmetic changes, but as the successor was already in preparation, we left it at that.

In some European countries such as Austria, Switzerland, Benelux and the Nordic countries were the first models of the 4-Runner were exported with the installation of diesel engines from the Hilux from 1985. After Germany came the first models only as a gray import through independent dealers.

In 1989 they turned completely from the first generation 4Runner from. Although the new body rested still on the chassis of the pickup truck, but was completely self contained. The difference can be clearly seen when comparing pickups and 4Runner from the same year: The 1984 models see themselves as very similar, while the 1990 models only have a few styling details together.

Almost all of the second generation 4Runner was a five-door, even if it was 1989 to 1992, also a three-door. These models are similar to Viertürern the time in which the body in a part (not the driver’s cab and body separately) has been manufactured. Three-door 4Runner from this period are very rare, and their production was discontinued in August 1992, probably because of the higher import tariffs and the high insurance rating.

But because the drive components of Pickup and 4Runner were still the same, it was also the same for both engines model series. For vehicles with rear-wheel drive and all-wheel drive, there was still the 2.4-liter R4, type 22R-E), and the 3.0-liter V6, 3VZ type. The new 4Runner had also taken over the new front axle design of its predecessor. The old gear-driven center differential ran out, and the new chain-driven, together with two motors installed, presumably to limit the running noises and vibrations.

The Hilux Surf in the Japanese market was also available with different diesel engines, including the 2.4-liter R4 turbo diesel, type Toyota 2L-TE (until 1993), and later the 3.0-liter R4 turbo diesel, type Toyota 1KZ-TE. A few copies were also available with a 2.0-liter gasoline engine R4, type Toyota 3Y, delivered. Usually, the turbo upgrade for naturally aspirated diesel engines was (eg, the 2.8-liter R4)., With or without charge air cooler, which improves the performance

Most other former SUV with an independent body (eg Nissan Pathfinder or Ford Explorer) had normal, one-piece tailgate with rear window that opened up. The 4Runner had – taken over from predecessor – however, a rear lift with crank windows. To open one first had to wind down the rear window and then open the bottom hinged rear tailgate like a pickup.

In 1992, the 4Runner has been slightly revised and got Module headlight instead of the increasingly lagging Sealed Beam rectangular headlights. 1993 to 1995 – the last year of production for the second generation 4Runner – there were other cosmetic changes.

Previously, the import activities of Toyota as were not manufacturers nor pooled across Europe for most Japanese. This meant that individual models others were not and imported only with certain engine variants in certain European countries. So now the 4Runner was officially available in Germany, but only with the 3.0-liter V6 petrol engine. In some European countries, however, even the 3.0-liter diesel engine was offered. After several customers a 4Runner with a diesel engine partially imported about Toyota dealers and independent dealers, Toyota took from 1993 the diesel engine officially into the model range.

Both the first and the second generation of the 4Runner were designated as unsafe SUVs. The crash standards for light commercial vehicles in the U.S. were not very strict in the 1980s and 1990s, and so all the early 4Runner were fitted with doors that offered little protection in a side impact. In most places there was little more than two sheets and the window which should hold an intruding vehicle from injuring the passengers. The second Generation of the 4Runner got for the driver side frontal impact only one star, the passenger side at least four stars. Later crash standards required as with other cars a specific side impact protection in the doors.

However, the most often heard complaint was that the 4Runner – as many other SUV with a narrow track – tended to roll over. Many light SUVs of the time had relatively high priorities and therefore raced under the action corresponding forces slightly to the side. Whether this represents a serious hazard on the road depends on many parameters, eg the speed at which the tire reared, the nature of the road surface and the abilities the driver, dangerous situations foresee and avert from. The third generation 4Runner had a wider track, but you do not know whether this was a direct response to the increased pressure from security experts or had other reasons.

In 1995 the slightly outdated looking 4Runner was again revised significantly. During the transition from the first to the second generation kept the build quality and the special equipment essentially at the same level as in the other midsize SUV, the introduction of third generation marked the move towards more luxury. The Nissan Pathfinder made with this development, but the two were from this time in a very different Class as her former competitor Ford Explorer, Chevrolet Blazer, and Isuzu Rodeo. Optical resembled the third generation of the 4Runner the second right.

However, this similarity was limited definitely on the optics. Basic design and concept were taken, but completely re-interpreted with a new body and a new suspension. This time the technology had nothing to do with the pickup, of which the 4Runner was originally descended, but rather with the Land Cruiser Prado, from which the chassis was used.

The third generation of the 4Runner new engines had to offer as they were installed in the first generation of Tacoma pickups:

1996 4Runner in Britain was withdrawn from sale and replaced by the Land Cruiser Prado, which was offered as” Toyota Land Cruiser Colorado”.

The main changes in the third generation towards the second is a longer body on a longer chassis, more interior room, more luggage space, airbags for driver and front passenger, ABS, normal, top-hinged tailgate, coil springs all round, rack and pinion steering, and aerodynamic inserted into the body headlights with glass cover. In addition, the Hilux Surf models had from the beginning, 16-inch wheels and got the first time a Center differential for the all-wheel drive, allowed driving in rough terrain without complications. The previous system was maintained for to continue to allow a switch from rear-wheel drive on under load.

In 1997 the 4Runner was revised only in some minor points; as was, for example, the luggage compartment cover supplied fitting to the exterior colors.

1998 remained largely unchanged 4Runner except for a few changes in the electronics: There were new switch and a newly designed four-spoke steering wheel, which also necessitated changes to the airbag system.

1999, the interior have been revised with respect to both cosmetically. They got bumper with "Fat Lip" and headlamps with multi-axis Parabolcharakterisitik, projection fog lamps and modernized position and blinking lights. In models Limited and Highlander (later: Sport Edition), the running boards, front and rear bumpers and the mud flaps were delivered in body color. The operation was completely new arrangements, the Controls for the rear window and the heating at the center of the dashboard landed. The Limited models received a new electronic temperature control unit and an improved stereo system.

2001 4Runner received the transparent dome for the tail lights and a new grille. The wheels were given five-spoke wheels. The Limited models received new five-spoke wheels, but other than the base and the SR5 model. There were also new, leaner mirrors. Even the base and SR5 models of the 4Runner got new controls for the automatic climate control with three levers and two buttons as opposed to the two sliders and the two buttons of the Predecessors. All were equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESP) 2001.

This model was offered in Europe only with the 3.0-liter diesel engine. Depending single country ended the import of the 4Runner. In Germany the Hilux disappeared from the model range with the appearance of the Toyota RAV4II, who was now also available in a larger version, and with diesel engine.

The new 4Runner was introduced in October 2002 as a 2003 model. It has now been officially offered only in North America and Asia. In other markets, the segment took over part of the RAV4 Land Cruiser Prado or Toyota. The fourth generation of the 4Runner had far-reaching changes to the chassis, but aimed at the same clientele as the third generation. The new 4Runner was based on the Land Cruiser Prado 120 Series, kept his style and was in Segment of the luxurious SUV with off-road qualities marketed. Available trim levels were the SR5, Sport Edition and Limited. The standard engine is the all-new, low-emissions 4.0-liter V6, Toyota 1GR-FE type, but the first time there is to request a V8 engine with a displacement of 4.7 liters, type, 2UZ-FE, the 260hp (194 kW) and has a torque of 415 Nm. V6 models with rear-wheel drive can pull 2265kg, V8 models with rear-wheel drive 3307kg. In the All-wheel drive models, this value is at 3171kg. With the introduction had the SR5 and Sport Edition models gray plastic applications and bumpers. The Sport models also had a non-functional air scoop on the hood. A standard 5-speed automatic transmission was installed.

The front wheels are suspended on double wishbones, while the rear axle hung on four arms on each side. The 4Runner was still combined with a separate frame and a rigid axle rear, a construction, strength and durability in off-road operation with good road handling and more interior space. The optional all-wheel drive system was permanently switched on the V6 and the V8; both had a Torsen differential in the middle, but only the V8 model, it could also be blocked. A new chassis, the X-Relative Absorber System (X-REAS), was supplied standard on the Sport Edition and if requested also for the SR5 or Limited. In the latter case also has an air suspension with automatic level control was included. The X-REAS shock absorbers connecting the hoses through diagonally to each other to reduce body roll in sharp curves. All 4Runner were with sliding plates for the Engine, all-wheel drive and the petrol tank fitted to prevent damage during off-road driving. Hill start assist (HAC) prevented from rolling backwards when starting on a hill, and the hill descent control (DAC, only with all-wheel drive) regulated gas and brake intervention automatically with very slow downhill. Both systems were supplied as standard with all-wheel versions.

The standard equipment, an adjustable tilt and length steering column, electronic door locking system with remote control ("Keyless Entry"), dual-zone automatic climate control, electrically operated lumbar support for the driver, an electrically operated rear window and the V8 models were a receptacle for a trailer hitch, which directly was fixed to the rear crossmember. On request were available: Garage door opener ("Home Link"), a electrochromatically dimming interior rear-view mirror, electrically operated glass sunroof, a third bench seat, DVD-based navigation system, a JBL stereo with ten speakers and an audio system for the rear seat passengers. As an option, there was also a system of two reversing cameras (both on the right and left D-pillar mounted).

All 4Runner had Toyota’s Star Safety System, ABS, electronic brake force distribution (EBD), Brake Assist (BAS), Traction Control System (TCS) and stability control (VSC) contained. In the model vintages 2005 to 2007 were front side airbags available as an option from 2008 onwards they were standard equipment.

In April 2007, the report showed the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), the 4Runner in the 2002 and 2005 one of the lowest rates of fatal accidents (13 per 1 million registered vehicles) had. Only the Infiniti G35 and the BMW 7 Series still had lower rates. The IIHS evaluates the 4Runner N210 as generally "good" in frontal offset impact and as generally "good" in the side impact (vehicles with side airbags). These are the best Results for one of a pickup derived, mid-size SUV. The 4Runner got a "good" in 13 of 14 categories tested.

siehe Toyota Racing Development

Later models had a DVD video system for rear seat passengers (RSES) with 9 "LCD screen and two wireless headphones.

The fifth generation 4Runner was unveiled at the Texas State Fair on September 24, 2009. She is now officially only available in North America and therefore has only a gasoline engine.

The base is the previous model, however, in the length and especially in significantly greater height. There are three trim levels are available, two of which were already available to the predecessor. In addition to the SR5 and Limited Edition, which correspond to the previous versions, in essence, there is now the Trail Edition, which is available only as a four-wheel version. While in SR5 and Limited versions one all-wheel drive is installed, it is in the trail version to a permanent all-wheel drive. All models come with A-TRAC. The new trail version offers the Toyota Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS) and Crawl Control, which were only available for premium Toyota vehicles so far, as well as a rear locking differential. A 2.7-liter gasoline engine R4 was offered initially for the 2WD models with 4-speed automatic transmission. This version, however, was set by the end of 2010. Since then, the 4.0-liter V6, which improves the power, torque and fuel economy over Dual VVT-i, standard on all models equipped with 5-speed automatic transmission.

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Konzeptautos: Toyota FCHV • Toyota i-Road