Nissan Skyline GT-R
Nissan Skyline – the middle class sports car manufactured in Japan by Nissan since 1957. Available versions: a coupe or sedan. Skyline is sold in North America and South Korea.
The first model Skyline was produced in April 1957 by Prince and it was a car belonging to the luxury class. Engine capacity was 1,482cc and had power of 44kW (60hp). This engine, was signed marking GA30. The rear suspension has been applied beam de Dione’a being able to withstand 140km/h The car weighed 1300kg. Model Skyline was produced by Prince Motor Company as a 4-door sedan and 5-door station wagon. Skylines were also as pick-ups and vans called the "Prince Skyway."
In 1958, Skyline has undergone modifications to the front lamps. This model was equipped with an engine as the GA-4 OHV, which had a capacity of 1484 cm ³. This engine generates 70hp, 4400 rpm and was produced until 1961.
Nissan Skyline Sport was produced manually by Giovanni Michelottiego and performed the coupé and convertible. He appeared in 4 colors: Beige Metallic Palemo, Berona Gray, Isca Mantova Ivory and Blue. This model was equipped with an engine capacity of 1,862cc, which was marked by the power of 92hp available from 4800 rpm and torque of 154 Nm. He weighed 1350kg.
In 1961 Fuji Precision Industries changed its name to Prince. After the 1954 S50 series was released. It was the second generation of this car, and has become one of the most desirable cars in Japan. These vehicles were powered by the G-1 engine with 70hp, which was a version of the old GA-4 engine. This engine was marked by capacity 1862 cm ³. Was also produced version of a power 91hp. In 1962, the model has been stylization and was named S21S. Model S50 grew to 1963 and was sold in different markets under the name A150. In 1966, Nissan and Prince merged and the S50 was released under the name Nissan Skyline. This model was produced until 1967.
In May 1964 Prince created a racing GT Skyline. Based on the S54 and was used for the larger 6-cylinder engine from the G7 Gloria (S40). The car needed to extend the wheelbase by 8 "to provide space for a larger engine. When it was announced the second Japanese Grand Prix, Prince had hopes of winning the Skyline GT-II. Took place from second to sixth. Its main competitor was the Porsche 904 mainly thanks the success of this racing vehicle, the Prince 2000GT (also called GT – GT – B, S54A and S54B) was released to the Japanese market. It was produced in two versions:
The B model featured three Weber carburetors 40DCOE-18 lock limited slip differential, 5-speed manual transmission and power brakes. Both in model B and A were used in the front-piston brake calipers.
In 1967 he produced a successor model S50: S57 Skyline. Nissan has provided this series of engine 1487cc OHC codenamed G15, which reached the power of 88hp, it was the most powerful engine in Japan in the class of 1500 cm ³.
C10 series of 1968, which the company began production in the factory OPAM Prince of R & D in the suburbs of Tokyo. This brand was marked with the logo of Nissan. While the C10 series was sold, Prince kept the name, which was entirely eliminated from the production of cars and trucks. The dealer that became a division of Nissan and marketing group was the Prince restraining transfer of Mita line to Ginza. Skyline C10 left the factory Nissan-engined 1,487cc OHC G15 I4, which was installed in the previous S57 model and possessed the power of 95hp. There was a version with an engine capacity of 1800 cm ³ L G18 I4. Nissan also produced this model in the station wagon. Model coupé was produced in 1970.
In the following year he was made a model GC10 2000 GT with engine 1998cc I6 L20. The chassis of a straight six, to avoid stretching, which was a lot in the model S54. The new engine had a power of 120hp.
The first Skyline GT-R appeared in February 1969. Called the PGC-10 (coupé version was then marked KPGC-10), Hakosuka for fans Hako and a short version of the coupé. The GT-R had an engine capacity 1998 cm ³, was signed letters DOHC S20 I6. New product with two overhead camshafts generate an output of 160hp and torque of 180 Nm. Just as the best sports cars of the time, he had the GR8 engine used in racing Nissanach R380. The GT-R began as a sedan and two-door coupe was introduced into production in 1971. The cars were stripped of unnecessary equipment to be lighter and able to participate in the races. The sedan racked 33 times, that is me than two years later coupé version. Number of victories increased in 1971 to 50 C10 series competed with: Toyota 1600 GT5, Isuzu Bellett GTR, Mazda Familia (R100), Mazda Capella (RX-2) – equal to the Porsche models from that period. In 1971 the new Mazda RX-3 became the GT-R ‘rival. GT-R increased the number of wins, which gave him a significant advantage over the Mazda RX-3. GT-R was also a favorite in street races. It was the beginning of the street drift, which was to deliberate introduction of the car oversteer. The most popular driver Kunimitsu Takahashi was driftowym.
The next generation of C110 was produced in the years 1972-1977. Exports in 1970, C110 and GC110 Skyline was sold as the Datsun K-series, the Datsun 160K, 180K and Datsun Datsun 240K. Body appeared in four-door sedan version of the two-door coupé and five-door station wagon. C110 was more sophisticated in design than its predecessor. It was the first version of the round rear lights, which was a typical feature of the future skyline. Skyline C110 was distributed by the team, "Ken & Mary" ("Kenmeri"). Skyline has been announced in Japan by the team, which at the time was described by colleagues around (Ken and Mary) as the relaxation and satisfaction. He won the high success and was placed in high positions in Japan as well sell the car. It can be purchased in Australia, a small number of these cars survived and is in use to this day. There, the Datsun 240K car that was cheaper Ford Falcon GT than or BMW 5 and cost $ 5,000.
Nissan Skyline GT-R was launched in September 1972, but was only available until March 1973, when Nissan ceased production. The oil crisis saw many people who prefer the economic, sporting and well-made cars. Nissan outraged ended participate in races, so there was no purpose in further production of the GT-R. There was officially exported anywhere, although Nissan cars exported to Australia. Only 197 models KPGC110 GT-R has been sold in Japan, the cars were modified by Nissan Performance (who was called NISMO). The last GT-R-I was after 16 years in 1989 BNR32 model.
Breakthrough made models C211 and GC211 in 1977, was used in these new inline six-cylinder engine mounted longitudinally in front. Cars were produced until 1987. Datsun Datsun 240K/280K and 240C/280C were produced for export. She has a rare station wagon version, which had a unique styling, the rear door was used much less than ordinary glass was used between the posts C and D. Model GT-ES replaced the GT-R turbocharged engine, which had a sign L20ET.
It was the first car in Japan with a turbocharged engine. One thing about this engine, there was no intercooler or blow-offa, but the valve that dropped the pressure in the intake system, if it was too big.
The name was "brought" from the Japanese house in August 1981 in the global market is released R30, which was on the floorpan model C31. In contrast to the previous generation of four-and six-cylinder versions are now available, and the length remains the same. Series R30 was available as: two-door coupe, four-door sedan, four-door hatchback and four-door station wagon. All available models Skyline R30 was 26 All versions except the combo usually had four round lights both front and rear, which became a hallmark of the Skyline’ów. Station wagon had different tail lights than the version sedan, coupe and if not performed with the turbo version, were available six-cylinder versions. Kombi more like a Nissan Sunny than a Skyline. Door coupé had a door with bars, unusual feature was that Rear seat passengers can open the rear window itself (this feature has already been applied in models C10 coupes, the C110 Coupe and C211 coupes), while four-door versions had traditionally framed windows. I pray R30 particular have been well sold in Australia and New Zealand, the people of these countries chose the traditional rear lights instead chosen a more contractual appearance for Nissan. Large selection of engines was available from the row, six-cylinder, turbocharged engine L20ET I6 SOHC 2.0-liter, 140hp four-cylinder 1.8 by Z18S SOHC I4, 105hp to szeÅ›ciocylidrowego LD28 2.8 SOHC I6 diesel versions will be discussed later. All new 16-valve twin cam DOHC FJ20 engine debuted in 1981 and were initially four-cylinder, in the Japanese market took a lot of engines for the two valves per cylinder. A number of copies of the best model specifications have adjustable shock absorbers, which could adjustable while driving, it was the first such system that has been produced for a multitude of vehicles JDM (Japan Domestic Market – Japanese domestic market). Nissan Gloria and the Nissan Laurels also introduced L-series engines and diesels (Laurel only). In August 1983 the R30 has undergone a number of modifications, changes included, among others, braking system, each wheel disc brakes were, instead of the standard brakes drum. The old four-cylinder engine was replaced with a new unit Z18S CA18. Modifications also underwent body, the body received new bumpers, "winged" doors, new mirrors (replacing the old "hockey stick") and hose tail lamps, which rounded body lines. This year, the Paul Newman Version R30 was released to improve relations between Nissan and the actor Paul Newman, who used the car in his films, and also took part in the races for the company in the late 70s and early 80s Nissan Skyline Paul Newman in the GT-ES turbo engine easily reached high level of interest and is to this day a very sought after among Japanese collectors.
Model of the same capabilities of the engine L20ET – GT-ES, initially as the 2000RS was released in October 1981, most of the unnecessary parts have been removed, in order to reduce weight, Skyline did not have any luxury items, and there was no glamor (weight was reduced to 1130kg). These models were equipped with engines with four valves per cylinder DOC. FJ20E, this engine produced 150hp at 6000 rpm and torque Rotary 181 Nm at 4800 rpm. Officially models Nissan FJ20 engine designation introduced DR30. In February 1983 a series of DR30 underwent modification, the engine received a larger turbo and got the designation FJ20ET model 2000RS Turbo. Front brakes have been improved, which increased braking power. Now 190hp at 6400 rpm and 225 Nm at 4800 rpm FJ20ET, this engine has won great recognition and prestige, because it was the most powerful engine in Japan his era. Nissan raised the status of Skyline’ów DR30 and in light of this success gave Skyline a new very small and a generous number of changes that can distinguish only the lesser Skyline’ów, facelift model left the factory in August 1983. The interior has now been significantly improved, had electrically operated windows, air conditioning, power regulation of twisting; increased the number of interior components contributed to the increase in vehicle weight to 1250kg. But much more striking change was a new front in the RS version, at the end received the nickname Tekameb or metal mask with a distinctive look. Now the car headlights were considerably slimmer, and instead of the traditional barbecue now new mask was bent downward until the front bumper. Models with a turbocharged engine codenamed FJ20ET were renamed RS-X Turbo. The car has undergone further changes in 1984, was hot plugged intercooler, increased pressure supercharged, FJ20ET got a new exhaust, now the RS-X Turbo C generates 205 hp at 6400 rpm and torque of 245 Nm at 4400 rpm. To this day, Skyline provided with a motor of FJ20 series remains a cult car, both in the home country as well as in other parts of the world (Japan, these models are still reserved for racing on the quarter mile), come to life with the Skylines early 80s It also paved the way for the introduction of a new determination of the legendary GT-R, clearly starting Skyline’ów C110 series in 1973. RS Series achieves moderate success in Australia in the middle 80s with blades like "George Fury", competing and winning various touring car prevailed at the time.
Skyline of 1986 was a natural evolution of the R30. He was a little bigger and more "square" than its predecessor. Were available versions sedan, hardtop sedan, coupe and wagon. Skyline R31 was characterized by many new technologies that have been used in it. Skyline HR31 was the first model being supplied with engines of a series of RB. RB engines in R31 are often referred to as the "Red Peak" because they had red valve cover. There are three variants motors of the series. The earliest R31 DOHC engine. RB were provided with a system NICS (Nissan Induction Control System – a system controlled injection) injection system was built with 12 very small nozzle inlet, and distributed system intake ports in half which helped modifications at low speed. Later versions were equipped with a system ECCS (Electronically Concentrated Control System – focusing motor control using electronics) engine led twelve miniature nozzles for single six, much larger nozzles (one intercepting port 12, so there was a metal distributor, the engine also received a much larger turbocharger. Row-RD28 Nissan six-cylinder engines with a capacity of 2.8 were diesels. Another very advanced tech system was a system HICAS (High Capacity Active Steering – a high level of active management), which consisted in the fact that all 4 wheels were swivel. Series R31 Skyline was the only model that characterized the four-door family silhouette. These models are not marked by almost all of the GT. R31 Skyline was also produced in Australia with a 3-liter engine (RB30) available in sedan or station wagon, four-cylinder version called the Nissan PINTAT. Station wagon had the same front as a coupe and sedan, the only difference lies in the fact that it had four round headlights brakes, which was a sign of a distinctive skyline. Cars manufactured in Australia, according to the heavy import laws which set out what cars can drive in Australia. 29 305 models Skyline’ów R31 were produced in South Africa in the four-door sedan versions between 1987 and 1992. It was last seen Skyline in South Africa. Engines which were supplied Skylines are: six-cylinder engine RB30, six-cylinder engine or a four-cylinder engine RB20 CA1820S.
The final version of the R31 Skyline was stocked with engine RB20DET-R and is called HR31 GTS-R Coupe (800 units were produced). It was a version of the normal RB20DET engine, but had a larger turbocharger mounted on stainless steel, steel exhaust manifold, front was mounted a much larger intercooler, increasing power to 210hp, racing versions included in the group A developed power up to 460hp.
Models: South Africa
Nissan Skyline HR32 debuted in May 1989. There were versions: two-door coupe and four-door sedan. There were several versions of the six-, straight-RB-series engine, which had an improved head (12 intake ports were not present), was stocked with ECCS (Electronically Concentrated Control System – Electronic Control System) injection system. There were also four-cylinder engines with a capacity of 1800 cm ³. Many models have HICAS system, four-wheel steering system, the rear wheels were connected by links from the front wheels and are operated hydraulically. Version 2.5 was the first car manufactured in Japan with a 5-speed automatic transmission. All-liter turbocharged and naturally aspirated diesel engines were 4-speed automatic transmission. Floor plate was based on the model R31 Cefiro and C30 Laurel. All three cars are very popular in Japan (And other countries to which the model is imported). In Japan, the engine was CA18i version sometimes replaced with the SR20DET engine (turbo four-cylinder) was the result of low weight and better distributed mass than the factory models with six-cylinder engine.
The GT-R was equipped with two turbochargers with ceramic rotors, rear axle system (HICAS) and 280hp at 6800 rpm. Engine RB26DETT due to Japanese regulations officially had 280HP, but the actual power output was higher (up to 320HP). The engine was designed for racing, where capacity reached up to 500hp and a revised exhaust system, boost restriction, and reprogrammed the ECU (computer that controls engine). Electronic boost control had a mechanical stop that was marked in yellow so the new owner could remove it and enjoy the increased compression ratio in a car factory. The GT-R had Super HICAS system was more advanced because each wheel is controlled by a computer. The GT-R had a much larger intercooler (charge air cooler), larger brakes and an aluminum hood. Seats have better lateral support, emerged: turbo boost gauge was put in place a digital clock that has been removed from the interior. The clock has been replaced by a torque indicator, which indicated the transfer of torque to the front wheels in the range of 0-50%. Indicators oil temperature, voltage, and charging were placed around the steering wheel.. Chief Engineer Naganori Itoh, intended to take part in races in Group A, so the specification was determined in terms of the Rules of Group A. The purpose of the GT-R ‘was beating lap time on the Nürburgring north loop, which was then 8min 45s and was set by a Porsche 944 Nissan test driver Hiroyoshi Katoh set a new record 8 minutes and 20 seconds. Best Motoring team driver set a time of 8 minutes and 22.38 seconds. Skyline R32 GT-R won the JTCC. In 1989-1993, he took part in 29 races and won 29 times. He participated in 50 races N1 Super Taikyu 1991-1997 (R33). R32 GT-R was victorious in Australia wyÅ›ciugu Buthurst 1000 track cars, competing even with Holden and Ford V8 victories in 1991 and 1992. Due to its handling characteristics newspaper hailed him as "Godzilla". However, a good time is up in Group A, Nissan lost the race car. R32 was also defeated by it that, was selected the category Supertorowych cars today GT500. He changed the rules and the Nissan were founded wheel size of 16 inches. This limited the size of the brakes, which meant that Nissan could not race. Subsequent changes in the rules allowed the wheels of size 17 inches, so in February 1993 the GT-R V-spec (for Victory) emerged wearing 17-inch wheels from BBS, for which there were large brakes Brembo. The clutch actuation changed from a push to a pull system, the car was equipped with an active rear differential. One year later, the model V-Spec II with a new sticker and wider tires.
Skyline R33 was produced in August 1993. Slightly heavier than the R32, was available in version two and four; All models have six-cylinder engines. Nissan took the unusual step down, produced versions of the GTS with a 2.0L engine RB20, while the production of R33 RB20DET DOHC engine has been interrupted. The R32 was used automatic 5-speed transmission, combined with 2.5l naturally aspirated engine, 2.0l and 2.5l all engines were Automatic, 4-speed gearbox. Some models are equipped with a modified four-wheel steering system HICAS, which was called Super HICAS, first used in the R32 GT-R. Super HICAS control the rear wheels via a PC; it was the hydraulic system. Limited slide in the rear differential, but instead it was filled with viscous LSD oil. The Active differential are equipped with all Skylines R33 V-Spec. Engines and RB25DE RB25DET were also equipped with a system NVCS (variable inlet cam phasing – variable valve timing). They had an advantage, because at a certain number of revolutions of the cam has been changed, which changed the characteristics of the engine. To celebrate the fortieth birthday of Nissan to manufacture implemented the model R33 GT-R four-door. A modification of this model were interested in two companies: the first is by Autech, and the second was a joint Autech/Nismo. In September of 1996 appeared to be based on the R33 wagon model called the Stagea. It had a different body style than the R33 and R34 was only available with an automatic transmission. Over the years Stagea undergone some modifications: took over the front of R34, in effect making a four-door R34 wagon. Stagea had only four wheel drive manual transmission cars Nissan R33 model with the RB25DET engine. Nissan with its model with 5-speed gearbox with four wheel drive (4WD) and RB25DET engine has entered into a contract in which she was talking about the GT-R. Autech Stagea dealt with: a model of determination 260RS is equipped with the hardware of the GT-R ‘, ie RB26DETT engine with manual transmission, body kit and 17-inch BBS wheels.
Skyline R33 (series II) was the successor to the R32 models. In 1996, driver airbag was practically standard, while the passenger airbag was an option. The ignition system was also changed, the module ignition system was no longer placed in the valve cover has been replaced by a control system located in the ECU. Turbo got nylon compressor wheel. For a time Skyline R33 was produced in very large numbers, in different styles of lamps and various body putties, tailored to the body, chassis and is unchanged. Among the cosmetic changes in the second series of R33 can be replaced revised headlights, which strongly overlap with the bottom toward the grill, were aligned with the new lens, the grill was longer than in series I, the mask was shaped front part, so as to fit the new lights and front bumper, the change was based on the reduction of the bumper edge Contact the lights and bumper. In later models, series II, it was possible to order the system Activ-LSD. Nissan stopped production on the R33 in 1996 – the fortieth birthday of Nissan.
Skyline BCNR33 has also performed with the engine derived from the model RB26DETT BNR32, torque has been increased, due to changes in aerodynamics and turbine inlet and intercolerze. The turbine has been changed on ball bearings, but remained on the ceramic turbine, in addition to the turbine N1 (metal turbine bearings). The GT-R R33 all models were equipped with Brembo brakes. In 1995, the GT-R has been improved: RB26DETT engine, four-wheel Torsional Super HICAS and ATTESA-ETS. A limited edition model was created in 1996, called the NISMO 400R, that produced 400hp. Nissan test driver Dirk Schoysman rounded the northern loop of the Nürburgring in less than 8 minutes. This was the first production car to break 8 minutes, the Jaguar XJ220 beyond that with the time 7 minutes and 46 seconds. Other manufacturers have caught up with Nissan; mention should be R33 model was not designed for racing, in this respect always towered over him R32 model.
In May 1998 HR/ER/ENR34 model underwent a huge number of changes compared to the previous two models R32 and R33, with more emphasis on sportiness, RB25DET NEO engine has become more economical, with a more environmentally friendly. Production of the R34 GT with RB20 engine has been discontinued, in exchange for this engine was put into production improved RB20DE engine of the R32 model, he also got to NEO. R34 driven RB20DE NEO engine coupled with a 5-speed gearbox, 6-cylinder engine was the most economical of all R6 Skyline’ach. 5-speed automatic transmission was available on some models in the previous models was not available. Nissan produced a 4-speed automatic Tiptronic transmission for all automatic versions.
R34 entered the market in 1999; compared to its predecessor has been modified chassis, changes were also other elements. A more robust block N1 GT-R was founded in all GT-R34 R’ach, unfortunately plagued him quite a problem with the emergency oil pumps. R34 standard was stocked with steel turbine rotors. Turbine R34 N1 was fitted with ball bearings. Gearbox has also been enhanced. The camshafts have been on newly tuned and largely different from those installed in RB26DETT. Piping and intercooler have been refined and improved. Nissan also released a series of improved R34 GT-R and called them V-spec II. Created the R34 GT-R V-Spec II N1, but the lack of parts for the Nismo forced them to discontinue the car quicker to V-spec II. Made famous in the film "The Fast, the Furious" and "Fast & Furious", and in the video game series "Gran Turismo".
Eleventh generation (V35) Nissan Skyline was produced in June 2001 on the floorpan Nissan FM, which is now called the 350Z. Nissan Skyline is equipped with VQ35DE engine, tylnonapÄ™dowe (all-wheel drive is available for the sedan), weight distribution is 52%/48%. V35 also is the first generation Skyline exported to the USA. It is there sold under the name Infinity G35. V35 is a changing point for the skyline. Not here is 6-cylinder turbo engine, there is no version of the GT-R. Nissan provided him a more powerful engine VQ35DE designation, which occurs in the 350Z. Skyline and 350Z have the same platform, but the 350Z is more padded, has a more aerodynamic, and is almost 100kg lighter than the Skyline.
Twelfth generation Skyline was released on November 20, 2006 year. 4-door sedan version only occurs in the United States, Japan and sold under the name 2007 Infinity G35. Vehicle is provided with a V6 2.5L VQ25HR engine producing 220 PS or VQ35HR 3.5L V6 engine with a power of 310 HP (HR generation engine is 4 VQ (DE suffix indicates the previous generation of this engine], this engine has high sound and high turnover of Labour). engines of 2.5 l are also available in a version with four-wheel drive.
During the Tokyo Motor Show 2001, Nissan unveiled the Nissan GT-R Proto, he showed his future appearance (label generation was absent). In 2003, Nissan’s Carlos Ghosn representative announced that Nissan will launch a new GTR-a. During the Motor Show 2005 Nissan unveiled the new GT-R PROTO, a prototype version of the Skyline 2007 GT-R. The model was developed on the basis of the previous generation sedan.
At the end of September 2013, he defeated during the Nürburgring 7:08.679 min gaining the title of the fastest sedan in the world.