Willys MB, colloquially known as the jeep military personnel-terrain vehicle design American from the Second World War. His twin niaczym variant, produced under license from plants in Ford that Ford GPW. Both models be u s widely used by all the forces of the Allies during the war, then a so small by smiling civilian users in many countries.
In view of the preparation of the United States into the war, the Department of Defense in 1940 to announce a tender for light reconnaissance car (called Reconnaissance Car) about payload those quarter ton of equipment located in the drive on four wheels for the U.S. Army. Took her pregnancy at the stake only two companies American Bantam Car and Willys-Overland. August 5, 1940 the tender and contract for construction 70 cars will win Bantam that taken up building a prototype in the required time 49 days, while Willys, despite slightly this Szeja offer to need on the execution of the order of 120 days. Willys did not have yet at the time of tender of the finished project car, and only analyzes cost and time required. 23 SEPTEMBER 1940 jeep prototype prototype Bantam BRC vehicle is shown to attempts, getaway they s confusion default.
Despite losing in the tender, the Willys-Overland start at your own risk design and construction your own prototype. I want C get the best car design, Quartermaster Corps U.S. Army (QMC) pass plans of the prototype Bantam companies Willys and Ford to use in their work; Lonely piled up They are also them during the tests. The first prototype Willys Quad off-road vehicle, similar to the Bantam and structurally related to him, was delivered for testing in Fort Holabird November 11, 1940. Second prototype was made available with all the wheels of twisted ligent. Prototypes Willys shy young in Silesia mask engine, with rounded algae bars shield cooler with vertical rods. Reflectors be placed on b y Otnikach and protects against damage small crates them. Mass Self car is With 1099kg and exceeds the background initially established by the military level (as in other small projects jeeps). Just as Bantam, Willys Quad used arrangement of transfer drive of the (reducer, has weighed nap governmental, axes) from Spicer. Thanks to a more powerful engine (65hp) Go-Devil own production, prototypes Willys had a small but better axle strings from the original Bantam and competitive Ford GP, what was decided Oo success construction.
In December 1940 the army ordered With 1,500 units improved model Willys MA (in parallel with the order the same number of copies of the Bantam BRC and Ford GP). Changes concerns boulder mainly Body: grille guards cooler become an p grace, front b otniki lose a small side guards, and you say kszone cutouts Entrance in the walls of the side will receive a small rounded algae shape t Headlamps person They These bars in a still strewn to b otnikach. Changed the front windows and its method for receipt at mask. D be shorter, background, after completing the mask off, laughing on the front of the background can pass the word “iconic”.
In the first half 1941 an army of American ska choose With metalw Willys as the primary off-road vehicle and as a result, in July of the same year will commission With Willys-Overland company production 16 000 vehicles. For mass production, however small hit improved standard model marked as Willys MB. G of motherboard visual changes be a wide grille guards cooler, with headlights on its upper part, the p ask, wide mask motor. This design of the front part of the body was a Adapted from a competitive model of the Ford GP and turned up a very practical on the mask you can be, for example for spreading ada maps, and even transported the wounded on stretchers. In an early version of the grid reflectors can small to deflected upwards and backwards in order to illuminate the engine for repairs. After producing 25 808 units of vertical welded truss rods was and replace the characteristic pawn, Simpler in the manufacture of prefabricated embossed sheet, with 9 under the bottom MANAGING vertical holes be prepared in by Ford. With further changes in relation to the model MA, sp Ycono cutouts Entrance on the sides of the body, and the left cut moths have come to Special horizontal manufac stamping on placement tool sapper Shovel and axes. The back of the car on the left side mounted handle standard on the canister. D Lever shift moved from the steering wheel on the floor. A number of rough turned into a typical military, used in other vehicles (including the installation of an electric), other part has been improved. The official designation of the car in the U.S. Army to be having: truck, Ü ton, 4×4 truck quarter filter tone of the drive dem 4×4.
In view of the size Procurement the war effort, necessary gout to other car manufacturer. Order received November 10, 1941 Ford, who passed for free documentation from Willys provided production made exclusively for orders of government the United States. Ford GPW (In the Willys) from the original is different up only minor details. Parts of both cars can a small to used interchangeably. G of motherboard, Though hard to see for differences, posing Cross Switch chassis with a shield on cooler Engine: made of bent tubes in the Willys MB, but with background oczonego channel section in the Ford GPW. From the beginning Ford uses with their bodies (plant layouts in Lincoln), and from October 1943 to finish the production of the body produced by the American Central Manufacturing (ACM) that exercising with them so small for Willys.
A total of 639 245 units produced jeeps standard model, of which 361 349 Willysó· B and 277 896 Fords Stock Exchange. Willysy produced were in plants in the Willys-Overland in Toledo, and the Fords in six factories. Willys MB built last August 20, 1945. First model Willys cost $ 739.
The first civilian model, Willys CJ2A (CJ Civilian Jeep) will up yet in 1945. From up It directly with the military Willys MB. G of motherboard for differences visual represent a cowl cooler with seven vertical holes (representing a cymi odt trademark Jeep d) in place of nine and cherry leave behind the headlights, not attached from the outside shield, rather than sunk. In 1950, Willys reserved the right names Jeep.
In 1956, 882 (wed Ug other data 465) Willysy MB produced licensed French Hotchkiss. Next you in 1957 1966 Hotchkiss produced 27 628 copies of slightly improved model M201. G Ô·nymi different ences to small: rigid chassis, electrical system 24V instead of 6V and, in most of the those cars, new wheels with radial tires. Distinctive embracing detail to small bumpers folding glass transferred from the mask on the upper framework glass.
The primary u User of the standard model Willys jeep MB/Ford GPW during World War II be the U.S. Army, but through a Lend-Lease program to hit s are so small on the equipment of virtually all other Allied armies. Particularly large series of hit a small army of Great Britain and its dominions (mainly Canada and Australia), and further to the order of the Soviet Union. Much have been assembled in the UK from kits. Jeeps early models (including Bantam) debuted in a field battle in the second half of 1941 in North Africa. Wed Services data for U.S., USSR send Sent 43 728 standard jeeps (wed Soviet data services to 39 800), of which 7-8% was of assembled on site. So small most of the MA Willysó· ¢e and posted to the USSR. The British Army had no background in your own off-road vehicles such lightweight class, while in the USSR in much smaller numbers produced in your own models GAZ-64 and GAZ-67 (inspired jeep prototypes). Directly from the USA or through a British jeeps receiving small as “Free” armies of states occupied by Germany, above all France, Polish (Polish Strength s Armed in the West) and the Netherlands, as well as small army of a Chinese (6944 copies). Polish People’s Army, in turn, receive For jeeps with the Soviet Union. On the other hand, a small number of captured jeeps being used be the troops of Germany and other states axis.
Jeep produced by in large batches and became up one of the symbols of the Allied armies, with snake especially the western allies. Genera Dwight Eisenhower credited jeep to three tools that will win a small war (Next to the Dakota aircraft and barge landing). Wed Services official publications of the U.S. Army, jeep was a “means of transport for general use, personnel or cargo, particularly suitable embracing up for the purpose of diagnosis or command.” As a typical application provided so small towing anti-tank cannon 37 mm.
After the war, the war jeeps model, sold off the surplus in the context of the reduction of surplus books of war, to hit y to si Armed many other states, and also eu civilian users. U used by a small still widely by the coalition forces during the Korean War, and later to a small replacing serious newer models.
Open steel body stripped doors sited to be having on a rectangular steel frame chassis consisting more up with two parallel small the bottom nothing bent over these axes and five crossbars (in the form of a ladder). At the bottom a nice put together be standing in front of the bumper with demountable steel channel section, and on the back of the last one bar, which attached to a small two springs yste bumpers in the form sp aszczonych p tel The framework of standard jeeps made by small by companies Midland Steel. Engine mounted to under the bottom tree in front, for coolers. Suspension wheels to be having a dependent AD: rigid axle suspension semi-elliptic, with telescopic shock absorbers hydraulic. Wheelbase is 2032 mm (80 inches), while the distance between the wheels 1245 mm (49 inches).
Engine models MB and Ford GPW represent a unit Willys L-Head 134, called him Devil (literally: “forward, devil”). To This engine Governmental, four, dolnozaworowy, with a capacity of 2.2 l You (2199 cm Ó¬ 134 inches lower wall). Obtaining power of 60hp at 4000 rev/min. Most of the production be and outfitted Go Devil engine Type 441, and from the end of 1945 mounted Type 442 is different months out among others without background cuchowym nap dem camshaft of the (also in civil CJ2A and French Hotchkiss license). Clutches For g Major to be having a dry, single disc.
Drive over to transmitted to the axles for help Warner three-speed gearbox T84J (second and third gear synchronized) and the transfer case drive the courthouse of the two-stage reducer field Spicer Type 18 groundbreaking pose forward gears is small: 2,665:1 first gear, second: 1,564:1, Three: 1:1 Reverse: 3,554:1, and PRZE pose reducer: 1,97:1 and 1:1. Next on the wheel for a drive passed by by rigid axles with hypoid bridges production Spicer (re Imposing 4,88:1). In front axis motive used Spicer type constant velocity joints, Rzeppa, tract or Bendix-Weiss. Drive on the rear wheel to standing at the front of a pretty sulphates (than six PRZE across a regulator to a head mitted only with the drive dem 4 wheel). Brakes 4 wheel reel, hydraulic Bendix. The mechanical brake brake on the shaft nap dowy, run d lever on the dashboard (recognized for little of a comfortable ‘). Tires in standard jeeps had small dimensions 6.00×16 “.
Electrical installation laugh and the voltage 6V (Hotchkiss M201 24V). Electric starter run to no A coaster The switches on the floor. From mid-1942 abandoned the use of ignition key One (which I will make of vehicle Easy to run through niepowo Stated clearance in Ytkownik??w). Original lighting covered the front of a two reflectors road, and also a two aperture They These light aperture position and one hand mint reflector road on the left b Otniku, used in darkened conditions. The back of cars had a small light position, stop and reflective and aperture they these light position. Many jeeps was was later adapted to road traffic regulations by the assembly non-original direction.
Jeep would not as a rule, intended as a combat vehicle and most of the be and unarmed, but all to small suited for assembly of weapons. Cars standard model MB/GPW can small to featuring a wielkokalibrowy machine gun 12.7 mm (.50 inch) Browning M2HB machine gun or 7.62 mm (.30 inch) Browning M1919A4 under s slate M31 (later M31C), mounted centrally to the floor, behind the front seats (frame be reinforced in this place). Right-hand mask in front of the belt hermitage he can to so small mounted 7.62 mm Browning M1919A4 based on the M48, with a limited field of blades u French post-war cars had a small swing-handle for machine gun AA52 7.7 mm on the right side of the mask.
There have angry these Custom modifications can be used as combat vehicles by the forces special as the Special Air Service, LRDG and private Army Popskiego in Africa, North America. The strongest variant of armaments known images is wkm 12.7 mm Browning front passenger hermitage, air miles 7.7 mm Vickers K on the left side of the mask in front of the driver and the double-clutch located miles Vickers K on a central basis for the seats. In other embodiments, the assembled 7.7 mm Bren light machine guns on the handle anti-aircraft or chodzony wodkm 7,62 mm Browning M1917A1 lub 7,7 mm Vickers.
Existed Or maybe possibility fitted instead of a machine gun, based on the M31C, running 75 mm M20 recoilless rifle, makes happily lying fights with armored targets. Later on jeeps mounted operates a 106 mm recoilless rifle M27 and M40 on the basis Tripod cameras M79, from the back of the vehicle. In France, on the jeep from the 50s mounted antitank guided missiles launchers SS.10, SS.11, Entac, and since the 70s MILAN.
During World War II they were used on a small scales jeeps since 1944 as base vehicles for assembly of unguided missiles rocket launchers. In the USSR launcher mounted on them BM-8-8 with 8 bullets caliber 80 mm, and in the U.S. Miopociskow launcher T36.
There various theories as to the origin of the name “jeep”, but most likely it connects up the fact email this spell lazy American scy military mechanics called in the 30s each one a new vehicle received for testing, and found to be having it in relation to vehicles already during the First World War. To spread the name for the new off-road vehicles contribute up release show at the beginning of 1941, during which the prototype Willys, described in the newspapers as “Jeep”, entered the steps of the Capitol. Other theories derived from a small t names:
Determination road car “jeep” has started to be about during the war uto Equated with Willys and the company has used background is in material s marketing. As a result of complaints Bantam, in 1948 the Federal Trade Commission banned Yet Willysowi says, That she is the creator Jeep acknowledge c, small idea of ??constructing a jeep was formed ai was a highly developed one in the company American Bantam in working together with some officers of the U.S. Army.
From the 50s next Pcami Willys MB U.S. Army and many other conditions up M38, are based Young woman lying on civilian model CJ3A Jeep, then a developed his path M38A1, which in turn was formed status model CJ5. Built a small ambulance M170 on the front bottom intricate M38A1 chassis. From the mid-’60s vehicles derived trades up with Willys replace the BG pretty new car Ford MUTT marked by the Army USA as the M151, which is only from the outside like Jeep. G of motherboard casting up in the eyes of roses nothing the transverse u Imposing ribs shield cooler.
Soldiers of the Polish Army after the entrance to Warsaw in 1945: seen jeep as used by engelsk army
Captured jeep sunny day with pigeons Germany on the eastern front
Medical Ford GPW sunny day with pigeons Canadian stretchers on the frame above the windshield, 1944
Jeep LRDG desert units, armed with miles 7.7 mm Vickers K
P Grace mask a jeep he found and used as the altar Field