The invasion of Java in 1811 was a successful British amphibious operation against Dutch-Indonesian island of Java between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars. Java was previously a colony of the Netherlands and came during the Napoleonic era in French hands, first under the French vassal state of the Kingdom of Holland and France from 1810 directly below. Administratively and militarily continued to run all the time, mostly by Dutch.
After the capture of the French colonies in the West Indies in 1809 and 1810 and a successful campaign against French rule in Mauritius, (1809-1810), the attention of the Allies was directed to the Dutch East Indies. In April 1811 an expedition was sent from India, while a small fleet of frigates received instruction on the coast of the island to cross to obstruct the passage, and to do so at various coastal targets attacks. On August 4, the first troops were ashore and put on August 8 was not the fortified city of Batavia. Supporters gathered at the fort Cornelis; This fort was besieged by the English and fell in the early morning of August 26. The remaining Dutch, French and British troops withdrew, pursued by the English. A series of new attacks broke the remaining resistance; the city of Salatiga was captured on September 16, followed by the official capitulation of Java on September 18. The Island remained in British hands for the remainder of the Napoleonic wars and Dutch rule was restored in 1814 after the Treaty of Paris.
Netherlands was a number of years under the administration of France and war with England. The pro-French H.W Daendels was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. He came aboard the French ship Virginie in 1808 to Java and began the fortification of the island to defend against the threat of the British troops. He founded a fenced camp, Fort Cornelis, a few kilometers south of Batavia located and improved defensive power through the construction of new hospitals, barracks, weapons caches and military training. In 1810 Netherlands was formally annexed by the French Empire. As a result of this administrative change was JW Janssens personally appointed by the Emperor Napoleon to replace Daendels as Governor-General. He had previously worked in that capacity in the Cape Colony, and there was been forced to surrender after being defeated by the British was during the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806. He arrived in April 1811 on board the French frigate Meduse and Nymphenburg and the corvette Sappho in Java, and was accompanied by a large flock (several hundred) light infantry troops and some French officers.
The English had been the Dutch-Indian possessions in Ambon and the Moluccas, and had recently annexed the French islands of Reunion and Mauritius occupied. T. S. Raffles, an officer of the British East India Company, who had to leave when the Netherlands was annexed, suggested to Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India, Java and other Dutch possessions to conquer the Dutch possessions in Malacca forced the amount of troops had been during the Mauritius expedition available; He even proposed to accompany. before this expedition
The English navy was in action at the Javanese coast before and during the expedition. On May 23, 1811, the crew of the warship Sir Francis Drake attacked a fleet of 14 Dutch gunboats in Surabaya and managed to win. Nine of them Marrack, located in the northwest of Java, was attacked and the fort, which had to defend the city, on July 30 was largely destroyed by men of the ship Minden and Leda. That same day, a fleet of six Dutch gunboats under the French flag attacked by Procris, with five ships were captured and the sixth sunk.
The British troops were early in the year 1811 gathered at their bases in India and were initially commanded by Vice Admiral William O’Bryen Drury; After his death, the command was taken over by Rear-Admiral William Robert Broughton. The first division troops, under Colonel Rollo Gillespie, left Madras on 18 April and was thereby escorted by troops under Captain Christopher Cole-at-sea (on board the gunboat Caroline). The troops reached Penang on 18 May and were on May 21, supplemented by the Second Division, led by Major General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, who had Calcutta abandoned on 21 April and was accompanied by a force under Captain Fleetwood Pellew (aboard the gunboat Phaeton). This composite force sailed to Malacca, where they arrived on June 1. There they united with the forces of Bengal under Lieutenant-General Samuel Auchmuty; He was accompanied by Broughton aboard the gunboat Illustrious.
Auchmuty and Broughton were then appointed as the commanders of the army and navy, and of the expedition. Now the troops were gathered Auchmuty had about 11,960 men under his command; previous strength was reduced by illness to about 1,200 men. Those who were too ill to travel were put ashore at Malacca and on 11 June the fleet sailed on. Having visited several places on the way the troops landed on June 30 in Indramayu. There awaited the fleet a time to see what was the strength of the Dutch. Colonel Mackenzie, an officer who was appointed to take the coast made the suggestion to perform at Cilincing, a non-defended fishing village east of Batavia. A landing The fleet anchored at Marandi River and the troops began landing at 2 pm on 4 August. The defenders were attacked by the attack, and after nearly nine hours arrived French-Dutch troops to reinforce; when were 8,000 men landed on British troops. There were still some skirmishes and the French-Dutch troops were beaten back.
Janssens withdrew, upon hearing the message of the English landing with his army (or between 8,000 and 10,090 men) back from Batavia and moved the garrison at Fort Cornelis. The British troops were now to Batavia and reached the city on August 8. Batavia was not until barely defended and surrendered to the British under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had promised to respect. Privately owned The English were disappointed when they discovered that part of the city was on fire and that many warehouses, where coffee and sugar were kept, were put under water. On August 9, 1811 Admiral Robert Stopford came to Batavia and replaced Broughton, who by his superiors as was carefully assessed. Stopford had orders to Admiral Albemarle Bertie to follow, but as a commander on his arrival he learned the death of Drury and the proposed expedition to the rest of Java, after which he went through.
General Janssen thought the tropical climate and diseases, the English army would weaken. The British had the advantage of this false assumption and took one position after another. The Dutch army and naval station at Weltevreden fell into British hands after an attack on 10 August. The British lost 100 men, while the defenders were more than 300 lost there. In one of the skirmishes Janssens French colleagues, was General Alberti, when he was slain English troops, who were stabbed in green uniforms for Dutch mistook. Weltevreden was a few miles away from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British troops began to build fortifications on; Some were just a few meters away from the Franco-Dutch positions.
The fort was defended by Cornelis there were 200 men and 80 cannons mounted on the ramparts and bastions. The defense was formed by a mixture of Dutch, French and Indian troops. Most of the native troops were questionable caliber regard loyalty and combat power, although there were men in Celebes, who were known as powerful artillery. The captured fort Weltevreden was the English a good base from which they could go harass. Fort Cornelis On August 14, they had the roads could argue they heavy artillery and ammunition through the woods and pepper plantations ready along; Now new works were built on the northern side of the fort. Some days there was a fierce gun battle between the fort and the English batteries; that fire was mainly maintained by the Navy and naval officers of Nisus. In the early morning of the 22th August knew the defenders of the fort for a short time three English batteries to inflict serious damage, but they were eventually driven back. The fire between the parties rose, weakened on the 23th August and took the next day again. The Franco-Dutch position deteriorated more and more as a deserter General Gillespie helped two of the redoubts to overpower. Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed but recovered in time to a third redoubt to storm. The French general Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed their lives by blowing. Powder magazine at
The three redoubts that were lost had formed the key to the defense and the loss of it demoralized the Indian troops Janssens. Many of them also resented their connection with the French. The British stormed the fort at midnight of the 25th of August, after a bitter battle, the British took a loss of 630 men. However, the losses of the defenders were larger, but only to officers who were geregistreerd.Van them 40 were slain, 63 wounded and 230 captured, among them two French generals. In total, about 5,000 men were captured, including three generals, 34 veldofficeren, 70 captains and 150 petty officers. In 1000 the fort were found dead, these men were killed during the earlier attack. Janssens himself escaped with a few other survivors to Buitenzorg, but was forced to leave when the British city approached. The total losses of the English, after the fall of Fort Cornelis, was about 141 killed, 733 wounded and 13 missing (army) and 15 dead, 45 wounded and 3 missing (Navy); A total of 156 men were slain, 788 were wounded and 16 were missing (27 August).
Ships of the Royal Navy continued to patrol the coast and attack targets. On September 4, trying to escape from Surabaya. 2 French gunboats, the Méduse and Nymphenburg, They were chased by the Bucephalus and barracouta until barracouta lost contact. The Bucephalus continued to haunt them until the 12th of September, when the French frag alert recycling and threatened to attack the ship. Commander of the Bucephales, Captain Charles Pelly, left the ship reverse and tried to lure the pursuing French ships in an ambush but saw the danger and run away. On August 31, troops captured the frigate Hussar Phaeton and Sir Francis Drake and the sloop Dasher the fort and the town Soemenep on Madura; that was in sight of a large Dutch troops. The remainder of Madura and several islands in the vicinity placed themselves before long under British administration. Because one assumed that Janssen had fled to Cheribon landed there on September 4, a force from the Lion, the President, Phoebe and Hesper, which the defenders of that place soon surrendered. General Jamelle, a member of the staff of Janssen, was captured during the fall of the city. The city and the fort taggal surrendered on September 12, after the Nisus and Phoebe arrived there on the coast.
While the Navy’s coastal cities took the army captured on the interior of the island. Janssen had on September 3, again an army of 1,200 men under Prince Prang Wedono and managed to bring together. Other Javanese soldiers On September 16, Salatiga fell into British hands. Janssen was a British army under Colonel Samuel Gibbs, but was defeated. Many indigenous soldiers killed to escape. Their officers in an attempt to fight Now effective force was reduced to a handful manschapen Janssen could not do otherwise than to surrender. September 18 to the English
The Dutch island of Ambon territories, Harouka, Saparoea, Nasso-Laut, Buru, Manipa, Menado, Koepang, Amenang, Kemar, Twangwoo and Ternate were located in 1810 transferred to the British troops under Captain Edward Tucke while Captain Christopher Cole the Banda Islands were conquered, that the conquest of the Dutch possessions in the Moluccas was complete. Java was the last major colonial possession that has not been under English rule and fall it marked the end of the war in the Indian waters. Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Java. He ended the Dutch administrative methods, liberalized land ownership and expanded trade off. England gave Java and other East Indian possessions in 1814, as a result of the Treaty of Paris, returned to the Netherlands.
William Drury O’Bryen
Jan Willem Janssens
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